Industri Kapal Rakyat Kalimantan: Menuju Sistem Inovasi Nasional Transportasi Air Dan Sungai – SINas Dan SIDA 2013 Sunday, Feb 2 2014 

REVITALIZATION TO THE LOCAL INDUSTRIAL SHIPWRECK

Toward the 2013’s SINas and SIDA National System of Innovation to the Water-River Transportation.

Dwi Putro Sulaksono[1]

In the research program of technological development that was concern with the revitalization of the water-river transportational industry by the Indonesian ministry of research and technology, BPPT – RI Jakarta, and together with the DRD research of BALITBANGDA in South Kalimantan Province 2010 to 2012’s which was conducted to develop the national research project for reinvesting the local industrial shipwreck that has much potential asset in a large pespectives of culture, public water-river transportational used, and the growth of it’s industry.

In this research program, a serries of focus group discussion and workshop has treated for occupancing data in order to develop the economic product based on the culturally behavior of community in built their local industrial product of shipwreck. Workshop that was conduct to perceive for this research will suppose to construct a basic compatencing role involvement of the local managing pattern that govern into trade and industry such as; how the administrator empowering rule for the public water-river transportation, and how the operator keep maintained of the municipal port regulation beside of the orientation give for the applicated model of modern ploughing that was branding in ‘Kota Seribu Sungai’. The industrial revitalization of the water-river transportation at the urban development direction was also content a socio-cultural wisdom which was oriented in the complexity of the modern urban industrial plan with the architectural lanscape for tourism at the subsistance technology appropriate to the environment.

The revitalization of the water-river transportational industry was also directed for recovering and reforming at a whole part of technological innovations and the sustain of economic which was related to the socio-cultural condition that rely on the way of community used their knowledge at the basic indigenous subsistace technology appropriate into a specific environment. Revitalization is the way of such endeavor for vitalizing resourcement at the centra of the economic growth of industry upon the base community level for persuit into a suitable function in maximalizing their socio-cultural system to applicated role of involvement. The industrial revitalization and the SDM Iptek (human resource and technology)[2] of the water transportation is supposed to be the main capacity and the capability of man empowerment which was directly included deep in this substance of industry throughout the base competency in turn to maximalize their function and role in order to improve the efficient part of water transportations facility; and according into this opinion, the formal education should be deliberated into the workshop and training on the related field.

From the basic point of view in built concept of the science and technology research into the shipwreck transportational industry, the one premised asumption should be operationalized in:

”the human resource in science and technology of shipwreck transportation is the individual local culture where their position is able to play the role of managerial in a social structure and institution with the tend fold governmented in aplicating their statused by virtue up the reliable of affection, competention, capacity, and the capability in the field of science and technology of the water-river transportation wich was by the ruin municipal institution itself, they were being valued for a forthcoming investment” (the ministry research of science and technology R.I., 2011).

The reliable syntesse for it hipotesses at between variable used in maintaining of resultment for the technological innovation and human resource capability in technology is clearly understanable by showing this aplicated model of scheme:

Image

The ethnic of Banjar in South Kalimantan where their community lived at the both side of the river have been bounded into the specific nature. There was, they built the dwelling by using the technology subsistence apropriate to the environment. At the quarrel some of man made technology in the community living at the surface nature of the culturally behavior hold to be a remarkable, the economizing was captured under the use of river transportation for distributed the local product of industry by using the ancient boat. Since the 1980’s to 2000, the local industrial shipwreck in Kotabaru have became prior for delivering of boat manufacture product. It was the massive production of shipwreck like Pinisi and Lambo that was built in the 40’s centimeter thick measurement of the iron wood for the boat construction. The existence of the local industrial shipwreck in the Alalak village at the Swangi island was did by the generous knowlege that the ruin people community had, there was the genuine skill of the engineering in pervocated technology transportations. Jukung is the major product of boat manufactures for shipery equipment on this island. The local product of jukung from the Swangi island have became the need of commodity for fisheries corporation at the Central Kalimantan, South Sulawesi, and East of Java.

The supply production of basic constructions at the material used for boat component that was manufactured in Kapuas (the central of Kalimantan region) will be dellivered into the Swangi island throughout each of the counter production served at along river before they manufactured it to become the construction of jukung sudur, rangkan, hawaian, patai, alkon, rombong, halus, fery, klotok, tundaan and such other boats. The process did in built a boat is able to preserve within the two week that depend on the type of vehicle. The one moderate size of boat can be produced by the three or six workers that they were the generous engineering capability in constructing the boat. The origin of the industrial shipwreck can found in Marabahan, Martapura, Tamban, and Nagara. Between the specific production that can be rusulted by the local industrial in Nagara villages, the product image of the gear equipment used for the boat machine was produced in the household industrial as the complementary production demanded by the great manufacture and corporations where the micro finance for the investment credit has been morgage into the Bank mechanism.

Today, the extractive industry of UKM (minifundia or lutifundia) in the institutionalization of the economical businiss investment of the LBP Karya Bahari and IPERINDO (the joint corporation of the Indonesian marine industry) where the local industrial of shipwreck is condemnated to develope. But, the large production that they can produced still being reduce at the total credit of Bank investation because of the local industrial was captured in the main obstacles condition of the diminished wood for the boat material. The total credit of BI (the national bank of Indonesia) for the local product of boat industry was just arrive at the Rp 9,1 billion or (1%) of the total credit of Bank mechanism at the Rp 1.000 billion. The bare obstacles should be compared with the automotif industry at beyond into 39% of the rational permanent credit at the bank investation. This obstacle condition should be inspected in the tax and tribute of the 10% of PPN that the Indonesian governmented into the shipwreck industrial. The next condition came from the law enforcement that the local rule was enrolled into the operator of PT. Pelindo III that accomplish the task for administered on the passing board, docking, restoration, packing and shiping, cargo, container (teuss) for transporting and distributing product of industry into the national sea port that only of the 450 – 600 HP power boat engine with the total capacity of the 35 GT (gross tonage) shipwreck can be permitted for entering into the bay; this operating order was applied for the clear shipping board at the large of regulated veinable for the type of vehicle used for water transportations. At the territorial range of shipery, the local government work together with the PT. Pelindo III Trisakti in South Kalimantan Province was published the local rule (perda) Number: 17, 2008 to enrolle a regulation that should be operated into the boat vehicle which was capable for transporting most of the 20 to 25 GT (gross tonage) and only of the 35 GT can be permitted for entering into the municipality bay for the on board passing through the river regulation. At between the law enforcement found in the development of the local industrial of water transportations, the rule Number 5, 1999 for stimulating the dominated practice of monopoly was became the major issue at among the role of regulator and the operator that must be treated by the port administered management. According into the fluctuated investment at the growth of capital rate from the effort of a wealthy billing for enlarging port of teuss (container) capacity and the effort of ingrated flow of the Barito river which was also begin to move over the rise tendency into the growth of the obligated order from 60% of the local industrial privacy and 40% for the foreign company will turn to become 60% privacy growth of the foreign company. That is, the rust emerging of embargo at the worst compatition is began to move in under occupancy by the economizing[3] of the foreign investment. If this condition brought into the retreaded of the rural industrial growth capital on the river based timber corporation like PT Barito Pacific, PT Daya Sakti Unggul Corporation and PT Tanjung Selatan Makmur Jaya; and was supposed into the main problem of the diminished situation at the forest industrial product that caused by the deep exploited of the natural resourcement that they failed to return – while the illegal logging itself still can not be supposed to become the wisdom “in contributing support into the growth of the rural industrial” – thus, there have been predicted that the local industrial of shipwreck is not able to survive. The depleted condition came because of the alternatif wood like Meranti, Damar, Klicung (malabar ebony) for replace the iron wood in built the main construction of boat was still rarely to found, beside of this conditions, there was the socialization in the human resource management was still not introduced better by the enterprener movement in use the appropriate innovated technology instead of the alteration of the ruin engineering skill when they treating the wood. It should be remind that the structure, the straight, the strange, and the flexibility of the monocot stamp is the misceries hand made for reshaping boat constructions.

The Economizing And The Economic Potential At The Local Industrial Shipwreck

Cultural behavior is unique and almost always reflect an origin. The boat of jukung patai was built for female do to deliver their rural harvesting cropt-plantation into the market (floating market of South Kalimantan). In a large case of the matrivocal household, female that they used to be injured in nourishment, nurturancing of infant, and keep for nursery as an affective responsibility in look after their familly household was tend to be altered their maternality role to became most afective in governmenting the stable of economy at the local industrial production, female was began to dominated over the male position and male was being injured in a less captivity brought into the maternal menthal health. This matrivocality case found in the social structure of the rural family household have depleted into the social condition where man was captive into a bridesness situation. Male cognitive orientations that tend to played the role of managerial and most likely choose the work of engineering was began to reduce because of they can not returned the capacity of wood for manufacturing the boat after the running fast of resourcement.

At among the village community living, the social stratification found to be bound attachment at surrounded by the river environment, each of the social unit that was embeded into structure of the extended familly (clan, marga or bubuhan) shows a large of the diverse complexs in their culturally behavior at between the ethnic group that was able to recognize throughout their customs and tradition within where their cultural system was valued in arranging the way of peasant keep maintained of their living boundaries as well as property in communal (the rural economy product) that was also rely on the human capability in science and technology relevance to approave the water-river transportation used. As due to this contexs, the rural economy resource is understood as the most valuable meaning when we focused into the interpretation of the way of the community built to construct their living property with the specific dwelling by using the technology subsistence that appropriate into the environment (ecosystem).

The relevance understanding (wisdom) to the local initiator can provide the SDM Iptek; and in order to discover much potential of the natural resource at the environment (ecosistem), the use of technology in the village level should be classified into the necessity of: (1) primary resourcement, that was related into the use of technology traditional in built a hidroulic culture like handil and saka (dick, damp, canal and drainage) for wet-land cultivations; (2) secondary resourcement, the use of technology subsistence appropriate to the environment for the dwelling, sacred building for faith in religion, market places, the distributor outlet and counter of production (rumah lanting), and ‘siring’ in a vernacularistic side-river construction; and the (3) tertiary resourcement that related into the public water-river transportational systems such as: wantilan at the timber industry, agro-managerial bisniss, hotel, restourant, fishery, art, sport, hobby, and festivals.

The economy development at the capital income of the local gross domestic product orientations of the economy in ‘a centrally plan of industry’ which was grew in chalenges into structure of the economy politic on a centrally plan of agro-managerial into the level of state and country national (kabupaten and propinsi), this economic orientations still require an acceleration in monitoring task to arive into the same perception at between the role of operator and the administrator that shall keep in maintained to the appliement program of the rural economic progress. The dumping economy and the monopolizing economy under the occupancing of the foreign company acquisited in (suply and demand) for the one of consumerism product into the market exchange that was contain in a large over of quota brougth by the conlomerated group when they trading the compliementary product of industry for acquisited into the central modern market. This foraging company which was induced in a large of the compliementary product has restricted into the main regulated problem which was almost becoming to be the difficulties at between the operator to treath their accomplisment. This declining condition has altering much of the enterpreneurial movement to become most captive into the enterprises grant that feel to be most benefit.

A various behavior that prescribe to be the uneconomic even has evolving into the large orientation regardness at the structure of economic as a whole component part of the political governmentation, this orientations, with in where each of the individu tried for being competed and speculated to be the great provider agent of redistributor at the domestic economy. The consumerism is directed to become most consumerable in using the product of industry came from the foreign country which was demanded to acquisited far from the apprentice price (cheaper) without take to consider into the standard convention at the mutual capacity product of goods. That is, the limited age of ‘wear out’ and ‘wear in’ product of industry (e.g. a symbian phone cell, garment and convections or in food and bevarages).

All cultures have a sense of the economic: That arrose into a set of institutions which was combined of the technology, labor, and the natural resource which was to be produce and distribute kind of goods and services. To the extent that the economizing is take place, there was, the minimizing costs and maximizing benefits is always takes place in a definite cultural context, and it is always embedded in the institutional relationships such as kinship or political control. The question whether the economic always conform to the mini-max principles must be investigated empirically, but the possibility that apparently wastefull and “uneconomic” behavior such as a gluttenous feasts always conform to the mini-max at the broader level of analysis should be kept in mind (Harris, 1980:249).

It refer to the regulation at the economical condition in the domestical trade like this, the Moratorium rule at the trading orientation is probably been conducted for retarding at jeda into ‘the over fluctuated commodity’ distribution of the consumerism good at between a limited periodication. A Moratorium is required for savety billing into the wealth investment of a several product of the local industry, including into the image of a creative industry and the extractive industry in the ‘mechanical methalurgy’ or in the ‘mineral dressing’ that was produced in the rural centra industry (village productions). At along the sessional period of ‘jeda’, there was the industrial revitalization can perceive to be the efford in choosing the competitiveness product that still has a resistancy to the global condition (liberalizations) that was intruded much into the compliementary trade which was brought by group of conlomeration. Today, the CSR (corporated social responsibility) index’s at the menthal corporate group has been remarkably supposed to become the parametic count in measuring of the success allowances that shall be given for the compensassion on the wealthy billing (10 years is captured as a sequencing period of the wealthy growth investment). This moratorium as well as the economic financing (monetarilly) has ever done before into the declaration nation of the AFTA and SEAMEO conference at the global perspective in liberalization. Thus, by the memorandum of understanding (MoU) between the authoritative institution member, the renewable contract for the wealthiness billing into the growth of industry is able to pervoke into not less than two years merely.

The local industry and the extractive industry in methalurgy as a compliementary product to the shipwreck manufacturer has been concluded into the agro-managerial industry for being morgage in a permanent credit (KUR) which was recently develope into the institution of finance investment into the bank mechanism where the compensation of gift (provission) was prior to turn into the competitive product at ‘the image of limited good’ that was resulted from the creative urge by the enterpreneurial industry. The agro-industrial that was branding at around 2011’s, after the next 10 years will supposed to be capable in improving the rise of the capital growth. The fast growing investation on a permanent credit in kind of latifundia and minifundia (micro finance) was did by enlarging the occupancy of the distribution patterns to those product industry in reciprocating the exchange of good and other limited services before the brand new product of industry is acquisited into a large of consumen. The extractive industry in methalurgy (the rotary gear equipment for the boat engine) in Nagara can bring the most successfull reciprocated exchange when it was due to the patterns of consumerism did at the similar exchange is always refer into a large of redistribution on the district or region. This reciprocal order is also have the same need to suplay the economic potential that was demanded into through the regional, national or billateral exchanges had developed. And at among the distributional patterns that found into each ‘flow’ before the product of industry is emerging into a large of redistribution, the economizing even found in overwhelming at between provider and agents at the specific outlet of counter productions.

In south Kalimantan, this paterns of the distribution has the own specific traith where the river transportation as the dominan way for transporting the industrial product of good and services into the central market before sold in simultenously into the target consumerism. The traditional trade in good commodity was categorized into: a) the traditional market where the merchant just merely bring and sold only a single product of industry; b) the heterogenous trade, the group of merchant in a cluster market that was sold the most various product of industry at the diversification of the consumerism good; and c) corporate conlomerations that has to acquisited a large of quota at the complementary product of manufacture that will restore into the agent of distributor in a central modern market and industry.

How the village community organize their property owned as a communal by empowering the motivation of role into their social institutions in order to adequated basic necessity in transporting product of industry that was concern into the distributional patterns of the servant-service, human labor, and the material product before a large of redistribution is acquisited. There are, the relevancing kind of relation in kinship and married preferences (reciprocity and the affinity) case found when the village community level abandoned their basic subsistence need in self sufficient product base on the specific range of the teritorial lanscape for a communal land use as due too they enlarging the next secondary need in cultivations, wood industrial, and common industry of the rural timber for another domestic industrial like shipwreck and the public water-river transportation.

The industrial revitalization of the water transportation is suggested to recover much in a spot-restoration or at the whole support to become the componential of industry by the applicated of the innovation in technology, economy, and other sustainability which was rely on a socio-cultural condition and the necessity of the rural people capability when they tried to aproave their indigenous knowlege in the technological subsistence that was appropriated into the specific environment of living poverty. The revitalization is an effort in converting a large of resource for the economic growth at the centrally plan of industry. Hence for the revitalization can bring success for the direction, the village living based on the human communion should be able to enlarging the most target functional institution that rely on the whole element of social circumstances of units in familly household, and indeed, it was related to the ecosistem (the environtment living in poverty or at the dwelling).

The growth of industry and the mode of production at among the local industrial is showed to be the most captive in featuring a reproductive success that arose in sequence with the local product image from the central rural of industry. At the hinterland place of Nagara Hulu Sungai Selatan, the boat macine industry of ‘baling-baling roda kapal’ (the rotary gear for the boat engine) as the one component part of shipwreck, at beyond into the capital growth of the UKM and IKM investations (micro finance and micro credit) of the rural potential in the ‘mechanical methalurgy’. Today, this extractive industry in methalurgy should be recomended to become the proper choice for the domestic economy is because of this massive industry has a tendency to motivate the spirit of enterpreneur that was prior to support into the applicated program of the national innovation system to the public water-river transportation – SINas and SIDA 2012 that was due to the implemented program of the economic development: Toward the rapid changes of the economy occupancies (MP3EI) KIB II Kabinet Indonesia Bersatu has been established to be prior. Thus, at between the 2012’s periodication of the trade and industrial department program, this SINas and SIDA was supposed to be able in increasing the annual growth capital investment that will achieve by the enterprenership program of UKM or IKM (minifundia and latifundia; or micro finance investment) at the recent of 0,24 % of the Indonesian growth capital investment.

The revitalization of industry and the SDM Iptek (the human resource and technology) of the public water transportation is supposed to be the main capacity and the capability of man empowerment which was directly included better into the substance of industry throughout the base competency in turn to maximalize the role function and in order to improve the eficiencing part of facility into the water transportation; and according into this opinion, the formal education should be deliberated into the workshop and training on the related field. The activity of the local industrial shipwreck in South Kalimantan was still categorizing into the small scale of the UKM or IKM industry and nor to become the great manufacture that was assisted by the IPERINDO or Pt. Karya Bahari corporation.

The improvement of the SDM Iptek (human resource and technology) for transfering knowlege in technology can be perceived on:

  1. training and educations, the sertification course should be given with the standard competency in “Savety Sail for Board Capturing on Port Marine and Fisheries”. The responsibility of this training and education was related into function of works capability in the Pt. PELINDO III Trisakti Banjarmasin, Batulicin Port Marine in Pagatan and Kotabaru, Dinas Perhubungan Laut, and POLAIR to enrole the partnership program with the public sector of industry like Pt. Koja Bahari, LBP – Karya Bahari and the IPERINDO (the Indonesian associate in local industrial shipwreck and manufacture).
  2. supporting fund from the local government throughout the UKM or corporation that was presumably assisted into the finance mortgage.
  3. The improvement of skill and capability by the attanded study at the branch of foreign company, public corporation, and the hotel resort managerial industry.
  4. The introducing methode in operating a large of marine equipment like kompas, jangkar, tug directions, GPS, GPPR, the electronic defice (hidro-visual), and the use of sekoci boat, savety array and emergency, radio comunication, and the electricity instalation at the boat cabin.
  5. the main obstacle condition at the diminished of wood has been felt to become the same problem which is faced by the enterpreneurial industry (hancrafted art and the household industry) that was due to feel by the other country. At the national veinable, there are the main responsibility of both understanding in keep maintained of solution for abandoning much capacity accessment at the wooden base material for industry. But, however it was, there should be depicted on such condition to avoid the worst competition that finally just abreviated into the short allowence at the beneficiary need which was under occupancing by the foreign company. The economizing should be determined into the parameter of glutenous feast, boasting, competition, shirker, freeloader and such the braging behavior at among broker and speculant that has to concern in much seriously when we looking for solution to solve problem of the requirement of wood material for shipwreck industry.
  6. an effort to reforestration of the iron wood into the industrial forestment still awaiting for an enough time (8 years) where the iron wood that was planted in just only start to grew up at the first gubal and the taras (monocot stamp) but, still yet not enough strange for reshaping boat. The next endeavor in seeking the alternatif material instead of wood, and the use of a lubricated material such as fibre glass or almunium (coper-methal alloy) has had to be the most valuable at the requirement. However, there it was in the additional component part of this requirement, there must also been suplemented by the introducing knowlege in the apliement of technic (technology) so, however of this rembrant technology usage, the such condition in ‘culture complexs’ doesn’t has to become an obstacle at between where the community using the SDM Iptek. The condition like this is frequently found in the industrial component that should being completed entirely into the whole system of local industrial product in shipwreck.
  7. the master plan of MP3EI throughout a corridor at the local industrial of the SDM Iptek attachment in the public water-river transportation divission – when it shall be given with the insentive compensassion – there are the instrument required in measuring the reliable record as well as the research conclussion can be drawing as an output (resultment) from the progress repport in verifiying the analisis which was able to recomended the binding and non-binding direct policy making by the central or local government. This condition also suggest to predict by the proper methode in reliancing the worst competition at under occupances acquisited by the foreign company.

At the district corridor IV of KIB ke II Kabinet Indonesia Bersatu program in: Toward the Rapid Changes of the Economy Development Occupances (MP3EI) within where, the South Kalimantan, Central and East Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and East of Java was took at the same target-cluster oriented for the host applicated program. BPPT, in their content of awareness, through the ministry research and technology has make prior accessment into the allowence model in the development of: 1) the SDM Iptek, Transportation, Trade and Industry; and 2) an effort to develope the mining corporation, the energy and ESDM (the economy and mineral dressing) throughout the main corridor that will suggest in: The enlargement of capacity, capability, and the compatency of the SDM Iptek at the local industrial shipwreck and the public water-river transportation, That is, the application of the future program: Toward The Innovation System of SINas and SIDA in 2011/2012.

Complementary Industry And The Extractive Industry In Methalurgy

The extractive industy in methalurgical skill has developed since the 14th century. There was the one periode where knowlege in marine capability by using shipwreck began to introduce better at the growth of civilization in the agrarian culture. Within this periode, the ancient port of the water-river transportational system that was derived at along the Tabalong until the Nagara river has remarkably built from Tanjung into the hinterland of the Daha Utara and the Daha Selatan in Kabupaten Hulu Sungai Utara and Hulu Sungai Selatan. That was, the one periode where the on board passing by of the Dutch cosmopolitan trade is emerging much of yacht vehicle from the east indie trading company for containing of the local commodity of palawija and the nutmeg. At along the Tabalong river, there are the large population were densified at the both side of river from the Alabio, Kelua, Tabalong, Sungai Banar, Babirik, Amuntai, Nagara, Muara Rampiu, Muara Bahan until the Banjarmasin city (M. Idwar Saleh, 1983) which was able to reflect the artificial building architecture of their traditional houses and the sacred building used for faith in religion at the early begin of the borneo ancient town. Those cosmopolitan port river bay trading company was engaged until a forth coming periode of the ship’s colonial steam engine came for introducing the enterprises movement in 1513’s. At this time, the extractive industry based on the mechanical methalurgy (gold-methal alloy) was began to practice in the Nagara village. Today, the complementary product of shipwreck industry is capable for producing large quota of the rotary gear for boat macine throughout the household industrial product of industry.

At the century behind before the main road was built to cut down the shorter distance for entering at between village in South Kalimantan, the water-river boat transportation was became the proper choicement for the most suitable infrastructure to connect into the rural. The ancient town was planned for immensely that can be found in the Nagara Daha Kingdom[4], there was the 14th century shrine of the Candi Sari located in the district of Margasari villages in Kabupaten Hulu Sungai Selatan. The pattern of settlements has built to construct with the traditional system of state governmentation which was more familiar with the ‘sasangga banua’ or the most likely pattern of the village administration in macapat (Java) or a tricopat in Bali. This realm was empirely governed for suficiently need in condemnated faith of religion at the culturally behavior that concentrate into the one village as a worshiping center. That is, the hindhuism people orientation was tributed by the sacred gate way which was connected at arround river of the Nagara, Bata, Bakominting, Saka Raden, Pinang and other river at a restricted rural area. At between this periode, the Nagara Kingdom is the great civilization that was developed by the indigenous capability in practicing knowledge such as: building palaces and shrine, the irrigated land for agriculture, blacksmith culture and pottery, shadow puphet, astronomical knowledge and sailing technique.

A social order within where the village community level keep for arrange patterns of property land owned by a communal and how the community keep maintained of their economic resourches which was restricted into their traditional custome is relieving of unit within where the social structure of the extended familly (clan, marga, or bubuhan) containing of the rule into the complexs system of cultural believed at the specific range of ethnic. There are, the property land used by communal which was had relevan into the SDM Iptek (human resource and technology) of public water-river transporations. To understanding beter of this relevances contex’s in use; village economical resourcement should be focused into the way of the rural community organize their domisticated setlement by using a subsistance technology appropriate into the specific environment. How the community played the role of managerial at the institutional level or in the social institution for practicing into their property usage, and in order to adequate a various need of production in the  transportational industry and including into the way of rural distribute each of public services, human labor, and raw material for productions before demanded into patterns of redistribution. It was due to the relevancing of this understanding contexs has to had been related into kinship and/or close personal relationships (preferencial married, reciprocity, and the affinity) for countering each flow to self suficiented product upon the restricted area (territorial; lanscape). That was, the related patttern into the used of land in agriculture, industrial reforestration, public forestment, and other domestic economy usage like a public water-river transportational industry.

Beside of the local industrial of shipwreck in Swangi island, Kuin and Alalak, there are also public transportational shipwrect industry in Batulicin and Kotabaru and Tanah Bumbu. At the district of Kusan Hulu Pagatan, the great manufacture of transportational industry for marine fisheries was still produced. In the Pagaruyung village, this water-river transportational industry was organized in the C.V. Galangan Kapal corporated group that has been established since the 1985’s. This boat manufactory worker is the indigenous couragement people in woodcraftmenship labor (ponggawa; pungkaha) whom they were being migrated from a specific region in Tanah Beru, Bulukumba; the one district municipality in Sulawesi island, and still other worker was coming from the district of Ara where they were outrageously comes into the Pagatan and Kotabaru island at the same periode with the migrated refugees from Bugis and Mandar. Their decendance generations now is familiar with the Orang Bugis Pagatan, and they had been acculturated well with the Banjar people in reproducing the ancient boat vehicle of Pinisi and Lambo. The modificated type of it pinisi and lambo which often shows as a reproductive fashion is functioned as successfully for yacht marine fisheries.

At the next series of the 2nd SDM Iptek (human resource in knowlege and technology) research among the water-river transportational system in South Kalimantan, by using the soft requirement of instrument that has been doing by LIPI, Jakarta; there was the secondary record can be obtained for featuring a large of origin boat vehicle in Batulicin, Kabupaten Tanah Bumbu that was producing as a manufacture product of pakorseng that most suited in used for capturing fish. This kind of the wooden layer boat (perahu batambit, ~ Banjar) is constructed by using the iron wood (kandulin, ~ Bugis; ulin, ~ Banjar) at the 4 cm thickness. The village worker that found in this region is decended from the Ara and Tanah Beru villages, Bulukumba in South Sulawesi. The one record in history was told that since a century before, this local manufacturing product was developed in plousible until the 1990’s where at beyond this time, the central industry of shipwreck began to remove into Kabupaten Berau in East Kalimantan as because of the wood of ulin began to reduce at the diminished situation in deforestation. According into this condition, much of the courage worker was asserted well into the east of Kalimantan. The growth intensity of the local industrial product of shipwreck in Batulicin began to reduce at between 2001’s until 2010 as because of the problem of wood diminishion was not determined better for return. The assertion labor was supposed to be the proper choice in keep maintained for existing the main sector of industry. And according to those public policy, the revitalization of the local industrial of shipwreck is quite to be able to prevent. Today, this public investment of industry was administered by the IPERINDO in order to govern the branch office of the Barito Timber as the central rural of industry. Today, a repetitive sustained to the formeriously industry such as Karya Bahari has begun to growth in a rapid changes for investment when this corporated group was recruited into the main industry of Koja Bahari.

Visibility Study.

Process in reductionalizing record is generalized into the operational research by using the assumption and hypothesis that was obtained in a constructive-inductive analysis. This methode is choosed to purpose with the most suited assumption to describe the applicated model of technology usage to the National System of Innovations (SIN) that was directedly concern into the local water-river transportational industry. The dicipline analysis in social anthropological research always took the generalizing approachment in verifying a large field to examine the reliability when they virtualizing fact. This approachment is regarded to be the strategic model which was also required to restrict the broader level of understanding by conclussing the territorial setting of ethnic in the visibility study. The restricted interpretation is convincing when the anthropologist should be capable to described the basic essential need of the community approaved in performing the originated custome which was reflected into their cultural behavior. Community based in using the appropriate technology was became substance for the target recipient in introducing the technological innovation project to the industrial revitalization and the development of the SDM Iptek (human resource and technology) of South Kalimantan water-river transporational system. The result of this operational research should be able to supposed to be the wisdom in formulating a socio-cultural policy. Most specific, the all conclussion that was resulted by this research had to regarded in beneficiaries when the local innitiator (through the institutionalization and the institution) of the rural community development use to applicate for socializing the national system of innovation SINas and SIDA in 2013’s.

In order to encounter with meaning in (the ideographic strategy) at behind of each of a recurrent social as approximatedly was captured as a large of cultural fenomena and then, for discovering much of perspectives in a social-cultural repetitiveness in a society, the anthropology used a cultural phenomenology to observe intensively that rely on the whole aspect of cultural behavior as so, the acceptances of meaning at a cognitive view can be understood. The human phenomena must be viewed as mentally and as ’emically’ should be able to understood. There is no validity to the ’etic’ descriptions. The best that can be achieved by social science is a sympathetic undersanding of the motivation which guide people through their daily activities. Science is nothing but the mental emics of western cultures, and it’s view of society and culture is no more valid than any other (J. Douglas, 1970; Castaneda, 1969). Within the nomothetic strategy, the main task of cultural anthropology is to discover the emic cognitive (i.e., mental thinking) plans or rules according to which culture is organized. Emphasis is on what one must know in order to act like a native: the ”grammar” of culture. No attempt is made to explain why such ”grammars” are different, or similar, from culture to culture. Culture is defined purely as a mental and emic phenomenon (Harris, 1980; Goodenough, 1970). This requirement in pervocating approchment has became ruled at the domain of the anthropological participatory action research application. And according to Spradley (1999) a participan-observation approachment in a cultural phenomenology is convincing to the researcher in using the academic vission at the all appranticement to the research project. That is, the anthropology has to took himself as a subject (observer) for understanding a cognitive urge at the etic (fonetic) and so, the anthropology took himself as an object (participant) for discovering of meaning at behind of perspective in a socio-cultural phenomenon by using the emic (fonemic) understanability as an instrument for measuring of reliability fact for a succesfull research. Participatory action research in the applicated of the technological innovation was required for introducing a representative concept and knowlege that each of individu in a social community, when they perform in pervocating deep point of view as a mental and emic phenomenon through the inheritances of the indigenous knowlege that the community has, should be captured as the cognitive capability when such the ancient group is perceived to describe their life expectations into the specific environment. Thus, in gaining for knowlege (cultural geneous) that reflected at behind of the socio-cultural behavior, student as a participant of this participatory action research should be consider into a provider (local initiator) and agents of acculturation for supposed it beneficity in forwarding a binding-non binding direct policy making into the wisdom used for the sustainable development.

The visibility study attampted into this research (revitalization to the local industrial shipwreck and the human resource and technology of the water-river public transportation) is focused into the scope of methodology such as: (a) a socio-cultural perspective within the rural-urban participation in developing the SDM Iptek (human resource and technological usage) and at the perspetive of cultural knowlege at the substance of technology; (b) at the locus of region for completed a relevancing record that can be resulted from the human resource and technology used at the local industry which was responsible to the intense study of socio-cultural that should be able to compare at between a regional setting in South Kalimantan, South Sulawesi, and other region which have much potential in the water-river public transportational system; and (c) at the locus of law and enforcement through the wide participation of the government and such other institution played the role of administration to operated into the human resource and technology development (Bambang Subyakto, 1997).

However to the socio-cultural condition is has a closed relationship into the development of the SDM Iptek, then the intensiveness community study into this research is applicated by a contract understanding based on the standard operational procedures of research, there are the sympathetic criterium in a self managerial component of data into the proper function of methodology is used into such of an activity like:

1)    Collecting field record is refered to: a) distributing questioner to a large varian (social category and clasifications) which was purposed to participate into this research in order to give the accession to contribute the object (participant) of how the government dealed with the substance of existing the human resource and technological development; b) collecting field note from survey in references and literature, direct communications by visiting to the relevance institution in order to compilating record and information precisely for considering input into the decission making process; c) collecting a secondary record from government and public intitutional, university, and the LSM (non-government organizations); d) colleting field note into subject (observers) by using interviewing instrument at the deep participatory action research among the elemen of the SDM Iptek (human resourch and technolgical innovations) of public services on the water-river transportational system as a social component of the local industrial shipwreck; and e) triangulating and focusing hyphotesis into a serries of the FGD (focused group discussions) in order to accelerating a perceiption through pervocating workshop with the target purposed of responden and stake holder that directly included the role responsibility into the development of the SDM Iptek of public water-river transpotational system.

2)    The applicated methodology into the apliement of: a) study references at the literature, document, and a relevance public policy that related into the opinion of SDM Iptek of the water-river tranportational systems; b) conducting a focus group discussion at among professional organizations, the local government and administrations in the principal office of public transportations and services, PT. PELINDO III Trisakti in the Banjarmasin port, the department of trade and industry, forest reinvestment management and forestry office in South Kalimantan Province, IPERINDO (the Indonesian coorporated group in marine manufactury), the principal office of culture and touism, other representative group at the research and development organizations, and the LEMLIT (research institutions) at the Lambung Mangkurat University that was competance into a related field; and c) deliberating workshop and seminar in the speific theme of revitalizations of the local industrial shipwreck and the South Kalimantan public water-river transportational systems.

That it was, the all result of this research in the visibility study will be suggested to be the comparative study for the decission making process in directing the policy of the development, in specifically for reinvented the growth of the economic potentiality of South Kalimantan shipwreck industry through the national innovated program of the SDM Iptek (human resourch and technology) of the public water-river transportational system. The national innovated program of SINas and SIDA 2012 at its appliement of this visibility studical result also included the most content of concept of the modern ploughing at arround the growth of the city plan, that was mean by the cultural lanscape at the hyrarchical inter-relationship administrations at between the rural-urban socio-cultural background. The specific lanscape (land use) that should be able to perform with a restructurization of the landreform is: a) conservation to the natural resourcement lanscape which was included into the conservation to the cultural heritage, and also conservation to the natural forest industry; b) the cultural lanscaped in the populated living, lanscape in industry, mineral and mining which was found in the growth area of a centrally plan of industry, agriculture, horticulture, breeding domestic animals and fisheries (aqua culture), and also re-environment of the specific ecosistem which was appropriate to the populated living at the dwelling; c) a specific environmental lanscape at the DAS (property built at the both side of the river) and the drainage system; d) modern complex’s of the urban industrial lanscape; and e) resort at the coastal plain, sea shore and other green buffer areal lanscape.

Bibliography

Agus Triatno (dkk). 1992. Perahu Bugis Pagatan, Museum Negeri Lambung Mangkurat. Propinsi Kalimantan Selatan.

Ahimsa-Putra, Heddy Shri. 2001. Structuralisme Levy-Strauss, Mitos Dan Karya Sastra. Yogjakarta: Galang Press.

Balitbangda. 2011. Jurnal Kebijakan Pembangunan, vol. 6: 1 – 14: Balibangda, Banjarmasin.

Bambang Sugiyanto. 2006. Masalah Pelestarian Gua-gua Penguburan Di Kabupaten Tabalong Kalimantan Selatan: Naditira. Banjarbaru: Balai Arkeologi Banjarmasin.

Bambang Subyakto. 1999. Pelayaran Sungai Di Kalimantan Selatan, Tinjauan Historis Tentang Transportasi Air Abad XIX. Tesis. Program Pascasarjana. Jogyakarta: Universitas Gajah Mada.

Dalton, George. 1965. ”Primitive Money”: American Anthropologist, vol.67:44 – 65.

……………………. 1969. ”Theoritical Issues in Economic Anthropology”: Current Anthropology, vol.10:63 -102.

Departemen Pendidikan Dan Kebudayaan. 1998. Perahu Tradisional Kalimantan Selatan, Proyek Pembinaan Permuseuman. Museum Negeri Lambung Mangkurat, Propinsi Kalimantan Selatan.

Petersen, Erik. 2000. Jukung Boats from the Barito Basin, Borneo. Roskilde: The Viking Ship Museum.

Geertz, Clifford. 1963. Agricultural Involution: The Process of Ecological Change in Indonesia. Barkeley: University of California Press for the Association of Asian Studies.

Hans Scharer. 1963. Ngaju Religion: The Conception of God Among A  South Borneo People, The Netherlands Institute for International Cultural Relations: The Hague-Martinus Nijhoff.

Harris, Marvin. 1980. Culture, People, Nature: An Introduction to General Anthropology. New York: Harper & row Publisher, Inc., Columbia University.

Haviland, William A. 1988. Terjemahan R.G. Soekadijo. Antropologi: Jld. 2. Jakarta: Erlangga.

Kemenristek RI. 2011. TOR SDM Iptek Masyarakat Transportasi Air Dan Sungai. Kemenristek, Jakarta.

Koentjaraningrat. 1985a. Pengantar Ilmu Antropologi. Jakarta: Rajawali Press.

……………………… 1985b. Ilmu Antropologi Sosial. Jakarta: Dian Pustaka.

M. Idwar saleh. 1982. Kalimantan Dengan Kebudayaan Sungainya. Banjarbaru: Seri Terbitan Khusus Museum Lambung Mangkurat.

Muhammad Masrury dkk. 1995. Pinisi Khas Sulawesi Selatan, Proyek Pembinaan Permuseum. Propinsi Kalimantan Selatan, Ujung Pandang.

S. Budhi Santoso. 1987. Kesatuan Ekonomi Keluarga Pada Masyarakat Petani Pedesaan Di Indonesia. Jakarta: Makalah Pada Konggres Kebudayaan Indonesia.

Sjarifuddin. 1990. Perahu Banjar, Museum Negeri Lambung Mangkurat. Propinsi Kalimantan Selatan.

Sulaksono, Dwi Putro. 2008a. Determinisme Dan Perubahan Kebudayaan: Studi Antropologi Komunitas Dayak Desa Hutan Kalimantan, Bajarbaru: Scripta Cendekia.

……………………….. 2008b. Studi Preservasi Bahan Serat Dan Kayu; Koleksi Museum Lambung Mangkurat Kalimantan Selatan, Banjarbaru.

………………………. (Editorial: Gunadi at all.), 2003. Kalimantan Dengan Kebudayaan Sungainya, Banjarbaru: IAAI Komda Kalimantan.

Spradley, James P. 1997. Metode Etnografi. Terjemahan Misbah Zulfa Elizabeth. Jogyakarta: Tiara Wacana Yogja.


[1] For published this article, the author should be honour to Dr. Zulyani Hidayah from the ministery office of research and technology, Jakarta for his kindness in directing this project. I also deliberately pervoke to Ir. Gt. Syahrani Noor at the principal office of research and development in Banjarmasin for his participation in facilitating of this project.

[2] At the 2011’s of the BPPT directional project of research, the SDM IPTEK is presume as: Science and Technology Development is to strengthen the National Innovation System (SIN) and an increase in research, development, and application of science and technology with the goal of building a national innovation system, namely: institutional strengthening of science and technology, strengthening of science and technology resources, and strengthening science and technology networks. To aligned the position of Indonesia in other countries who have a higher ratio in science and technology of human resource, then Indonesia’s human resources need has to supposed to be accelerated for being involved in the field of science and technology which was able to grow and develope much of creativity and innovation capabilities, in order to gain the independence and competitiveness of the nation. To handle the complex problem that Indonesia is become the need to build the concept of reformed in science and technology of the human resource development, the demand for qualified science and technology of human resources at the time of globalization is should be characterized by the technological change which had to improving on the ancient capabilities. Challenges to the competent of human resourcement is becoming increasingly accompanied by demand for the quality of the product for getting short and the development of a democratic system of life has come to be forced for changing management of science and technological organization.

[3] An economy is a set of institutionalized activities which combine natural resources, human labor, and technology to acquire, produce, and distribute material goods and specialist services in a structured repetitive fashion (Dalton, 1969:97).

[4] In the Nagara Daha periode, the ancient boat of jukung was used in largely by people. There was almost in the 19th century this jukung and the yacht vehicle was began to rarely. The water-river transportational industry had begun to remove the dignity. The face condition was not merely found in the development of technology or is because of the deplession of must reducing of wood material resource for manufacturing boat but, the anthusiasticism of the enterpreneurial movement was reduced at between the industrious people as because of the life orientation has been replace by the most suited enterprises growth which was bring much of beneficiaries in capital investation gained by the former orientation in the economic policies that was introduce in the centrally plan of industry at the multidimensional level of global-liberalization consequencies where village has gradually developed to be the modern complex’s urban industrial society.

 

Lambung Mangkurat Museum

 

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Conservation and Preservation of the Cultural Herritage Friday, Mar 27 2009 

 

 

Preservasi Bahan Serat Dan Kayu

Studi Antropologi Komunitas Desa Hutan Kalimantan

Preservation

Consevation to the Cultural Herritage

Water Vessels

ceramic (Museum Collections)

Pendidikan Multikultural

Industri Kapal Rakyat Kalimantan


The goal of a conservation program is the long-term preservation of the utility of collections; thus any conservation approach must facilitate access to the collections and preserve their integrity for research and other uses (Carolyn L. Rose and Catharine A. Hawks, 1995). Since the conservation is determined as caring and treating the guaranted protections into the one object, some pertaining mechanism of preventive should be preserved for retarding the process of the deterioration and the dissolve of cultural properties. That is, the way of conservator reducing the risks of use in collections. Hence for the aim of preventive conservations; preservation is examined for preserving, preventing, caring and treating involvement into the works of conservation due to the conservator widhrawing the endeavors of prevention, protected, and saveguarded the cultural herritage.

The Formal Type of Wood and the Flexible Materials in Artifacts
The formal type of artifact resulting by the technology substantively shown an identical used of their ideofacts. It visualized of formal type, materials, and style which was directly shows up the socio-cultural function in societies. The measuring of circular globe, square, height, width, and high of it formal type is a specific criterium attampted by curator in identifying the object that he inspected for; The formal type of artifacts (speciment) is resulting from a cognitive process of the creative imagination when an artis creating his handcraftment arts. The source of creative imagination is pervoke by conceptions of man-thought his environment. That is, the emphirical understanding of people concepting their environment of living poverties. The imaginative proccess in pervocating the cognitive view like this is developed to be the representative concept of men emerging their orientation for keep maintained of their social order. A cognitive understanding of man thoughts in reflecting an ethic and menthal behavior began to emerge when their native art was closely related to the faith of religion that impressively releying on function of the used of the cultural properties – thus, beyond into the formal type of an artifact, there are symbols that imaginatively reflecting concept of methaphysical order from the sacred apparatus of a recurrent perceiveable in myth.

Komunitas Desa Hutan adalah suatu kesatuan hidup manusia yang bertempat tinggal di dalam batas wilayah demografis desa dekat hutan, saling berinteraksi, bergaul, dan melahirkan keturunannya untuk jangka waktu yang cukup lama, dengan aturan adat istiadat yang didukung secara bersama, dan yang terikat oleh identitas komunitasnya. Sebagai produsen pedesaan, suatu komunitas seperti itu dalam perilaku ekonominya telah memanfaatkan sumber-sumber alam dan ikut serta (berperan minimal) di dalam pengelolaan hutan, dan sangat menggantungkan harapan hidupnya kepada redistributor di dalam menyalurkan hasil-hasil usaha produktif di desa. Komunitas desa hutan umumnya adalah individu-individu yang terlahir di atas sebidang tanah terbatas, dan harus menerima takdirnya untuk hidup sebagai petani feodal yang mengelola pertanian lahan kering (dry land cultivations) dengan pengetahuan terbatas, serta pemakaian teknologi subsisten yang cocok dengan lingkungan hutan sub-tropis basah Kalimantan. Satu-satunya hal yang dapat membanggakan bagi masyarakat petani marginal seperti itu adalah: Apabila petani feodal dapat menghidupi stabilitas ekonomi rumah tangga, serta menerima upah minimal dari tuan-tuan tanah (land tenure) yang membuka lahan-lahan pertanian monokultur dengan jenis-jenis tanaman (crass cropt plantations) seperti karet, kopi, lada, coklat dan sebagainya dalam usaha-usaha korporasi di atas tanah apanage1, yang merupakan ‘warisan’ dari usaha-usaha kapitalisme Belanda. Dalam pola hidup masyarakat egalitarian seperti itu, hasil-hasil usaha pertanian yang cukup setiap musim tahunannya dianggap sebagai karunia serta limpahan berkah yang diberikan oleh tuhan, dan tuan-tuan tanah feodal kemudian akan memberikan biaya pesta (feast), yang kontribusinya disalurkan melalui balai-balai adat di desa. Pesta tradisi adat seperti itu dimaksudkan sebagai sarana untuk mensucikan benih-benih padi pusaka yang akan ditanam pada musim-musim berikutnya. Komunitas desa hutan yang umumnya berada di atas dataran tinggi atau di dataran landai perbukitan Meratus di desa Tanuhi dan Haruyan Dayak Kalimantan Selatan, secara umum menunjukkan pemakaian bahasa yang hampir memiliki kesamaan dengan suku-bangsa Banjar2, namun dalam penyebutan istilah-istilah khusus pada berbagai aktivitas religi, masih menampakkan unsur-unsur Hindu Kaharingan, sehingga sebutan Orang Meratus untuk komunitas desa hutan seperti itu juga sering digunakan (Raddam, 1994; Rafiq, 2004). Dari catatan-catatan etnologi mengenai batas-batas wilayah kebudayaan menurut hukum-hukum adat yang pernah dibuat oleh Terr Harr (Koentjaraningrat, 1985; M. Idwar Saleh, 1984), maka suku-suku bangsa yang mendiami wilayah Kalimantan Selatan adalah suku-suku bangsa Lawangan, Ngaju, dan Maanyan dengan ciri-ciri ras Melayu Asia Tenggara (Malayan Mongoloid dan Austro Melanesian). Dengan begitu maka suku-suku bangsa di desa Tanuhi dan Haruyan Dayak itu kemudian didekati sebagai komunitas-komunitas dayak desa hutan yang wilayah tinggalnya juga menetap di sepanjang perbukitan meratus, di mana unsur-unsur genealoginya, melalui pendekatan socio-biology3 di dalam studi preservasi dari benda-benda artefak dan kebudayaan material suku-suku bangsa tersebut lebih cenderung menunjukkan kepada rumpun ras Melayu Asia Tenggara, terutama pada bentuk fisik, fenotipe dan genotipe, serta tinggalan budaya yang dimilikinya.

Aktivitas Kebudayaan Dan Komponen Pendukungnya
Komunitas desa hutan, melakukan aktivitas setiap harinya untuk bekerja sebagai petani dengan cara perladangan gilir-balik (shifting and swidden cultivation) dengan jenis-jenis tanaman padi dan juga jenis tanaman hortikultur seperti kacang tanah, kentang, moniac, soebean dan jenis sayuran yang cepat menghasilkan. Bercocok tanam di atas lahan tadah hujan atau lahan galangan (hoe agriculture) juga dilakukan, di samping kegiatan lain seperti ternak, menangkap ikan, berburu, meramu dan mengumpulkan hasil hutan untuk menjamin penambahan jumlah kalori bagi keperluan hidup setiap harinya. Peningkatan pendapatan ekonomi keluarga, diperoleh dengan cara menyadap karet, mengambil getah damar, mengambil kulit kayu, membuat kayu manis atau membuat barang-barang kerajinan dari bahan serat dan kayu.
Aktivitas kebudayaan dilakukan di dalam rumah balai adat yang biasanya berupa pelaksanaan upacara ritual pesta adat seperti aruh bawanang, aruh mahanyari banih, serta maksud-maksud tujuan upacara lainnya yang berhubungan dengan daur hidup. Dalam menata pola pemukiman di desa, hidup di dalam sebuah struktur sosial keluarga pedesaan yang berstratifikasi, masyarakat melaksanakan kehidupannya dengan aturan-aturan serta kebiasaan hidup dengan pranata-pranata sosial serta kelembagaan di dalam berbagai diversifikasi pada bidang-bidang pekerjaan, sambil terus berusaha untuk menjaga keseimbangan alam serta kesuburan jenis-jenis varietas tanaman yang diupayakannya.
Dalam melaksanakan aktivitas religi, peralatan upacara yang dibuat dari bahan serat dan kayu yang biasanya tersimpan di dalam rumah balai adat, memiliki berbagai bentuk dan ornamen dan dapat ditangkap sebagai sebuah simbol yang menerangkan hubungan kausalistik antara kehidupan suci di sorga dengan kehidupan profan di dunia. Berbagai bentuk tiang sandong, lalaya, dan langgatan yang juga didirikan di atas tiang dapat diinterpretasikan pemaknaannya sebagai sebuah sumbu axis mundi yang menghubungkan kehidupan suci dan profan. Melalui sumbu itu juga, dalam pelaksanaan upacara pada waktu balian dan patati membunyikan irama katambung dan dentingan gelang-gelang balian pada waktu batandik dan menari sambil mengelilingi lalaya, ditandai sebagai saat dari sebuah peristiwa turunnya roh-roh suci yang akan melindungi kehidupan di desa.
Tradisi adat lainnya, yaitu tata cara pemakaman kedua yang dilakukan dengan memarabia atau membersihkan kembali tulang-tulang orang yang sudah meninggal dunia, dan telah dikubur selama 20 tahun. Memarabia dimaksudkan untuk mensucikan kembali jasad orang yang meninggal dunia dengan upacara-upacara suci seperti tiwah dan tiwah nyorat untuk kemudian disemayamkan kembali di dalam rumah-rumah sandong, banama tingang, dan karuhe pada suku-suku bangsa Dayak di pedalaman Kalimantan. Rumah sandong dianggap sebagai peti kubur atau rumah di alam akherat, dan banama tingang serta pataho dianggap sebagai kendaraan perahu orang yang meninggalkan dunia untuk menuju ke alam akherat. Jasad orang yang meninggal dunia tersebut dikenang kembali dengan cara dibuatkan hampatong, karuhe atau baluntang dan diyakinkan bahwa rohnya akan dapat berubah menjadi unsur-unsur suitors atau divine culture yang akan menjaga kesuburan dan kesucian desa.
Sekarang ini, peristiwa-peristiwa suci seperti itu sudah mulai tidak dilakukan, karena di samping mahalnya biaya untuk pelaksanaan upacara, pengaruh ajaran agama baru (terutama Islam) dan eklektisme kebudayaan yang telah membawa perubahan pada transformasi budaya di dalam struktur sosial, serta perkembangan dari pemakaian simbol-simbol semiotik yang bertujuan menggantikan simbol-simbol dinamisme dengan stilisasi bentuk simbol yang lebih sopistikat ke dalam corak ragam hias berbentuk tanaman, telah menyebabkan tidak digunakannya lagi benda-benda artefak dari peninggalan tradisi megalitikum muda di Kalimantan. Dengan begitu, studi preservasi juga bermaksud untuk menyelamatkan kembali semua peninggalan benda-benda budaya tersebut, yang dapat digunakan sebagai suatu alat pembuktian ilmiah di dalam menentukan kurun-kurun waktu serta berbagai peristiwa budaya dalam sebuah pendekatan diakronik ilmu pengetahuan. Tujuan memberikan perlindungan tidak hanya dilakukan terhadap semua tinggalan budaya material saja, tetapi juga dilakukan dengan cara recovery untuk tujuan membangun kembali sumber-sumber daya yang dapat terbarukan. Preservasi – konservasi juga ditujukan kepada manusia dan kebudayaannya, yang meliputi hampir semua komponen kebudayaan (ethic and menthal behavior) atau dengan cara remedial, yang bertujuan memperbaiki aktivitas kebudayaan manusia di dalam menggunakan sumber-sumber alam dan lingkungan.

Pendekatan Ekosistem Pada Cara-cara Manusia Bercocok Tanam
Berburu, meramu, dan mengumpulkan makanan merupakan tahap awal dari evolusi sosial manusia sebelum diversifikasi pekerjaan. Pada tahap itu pola-pola hidup subsisten dengan cara memenuhi kebutuhan hidupnya sendiri kemudian berkembang menjadi seberapa banyak jumlah kebutuhan hidup yang bisa diperoleh setiap harinya yang dimulai dari tahap reforestrations. Cara-cara hidup carrying capacity seperti itu telah menyebabkan meningkatnya jumlah kebutuhan kalori dan energi hidup yang harus dipenuhi dengan cara mengeksplorasi sumber-sumber daya alam dan hutan sehingga manusia kemudian harus hidup di dalam suatu kondisi merosotnya jumlah sumber-sumber daya alam sampai pada tingkat yang hampir tidak dapat dipulihkan kembali. Rotan, getah damar, nira, dan tengkawas merupakan hasil utama dari kegiatan berburu, meramu dan mengumpulkan makanan. Diversifikasi pekerjaan dan peningkatan jumlah populasi hidup di desa diikuti dengan usaha-usaha discovery, recovery dan invention dengan cara mengembangkan teknologi pertanian yang lebih maju berupa intensifikasi pertanian dengan sawah-sawah irrigasi air. Bersamaan dengan pertumbuhan revolusi hijau di pedesaan, jenis-jenis tanaman dan varietas padi unggulan dilembagakan untuk tujuan meningkatkan hasil pertanian dan pemenuhan kebutuhan ekonomi domestik pada masyarakat desa. Namun begitu, berladang sederhana di atas lahan kering yang ramah lingkungan, masih sanggup bertahan sampai sekarang karena terbukti bahwa cara-cara bercocok tanam tradisional seperti itu paling sesuai untuk dilakukan di Kalimantan.
Ekosistem hutan sub-tropis basah di Kalimantan Selatan terdiri dari hutan ulin, hutan gallam, dan hutan bakau. Di antara lingkungan ekosistem khusus seperti itu, binatang arboreal yang hidup di pucuk-pucuk pohon, hidup dekat air dan sungai (affarensis), jenis hewan yang berjalan dengan kekuatan lengan tangannya (fist walking animals), dan hewan lainnya telah jarang dijumpai. Kebanyakan dari hewan-hewan tersebut punah karena merosotnya daya dukung alam bagi kehidupan mereka. Hanya ada jenis species bipedalism yang dapat tetap bertahan hidup karena superioritas gen pada manusia memiliki kesanggupan untuk beradaptasi di dalam kondisi kerusakan alam; namun begitu perilaku hidup manusia yang tidak ekonomis yang cenderung melakukan perusakan dengan cara mengeksploitasi alam telah menjadikan manusia terjebak di dalam suatu kondisi diminishing returns, yang menyebabkan habisnya sumber-sumber daya alam sampai pada tingkat yang tidak dapat dipulihkan kembali. Usaha-usaha membangun daya dukung alam kemudian dilakukan dengan cara memperbaiki keseimbangan vegetasi alam dengan membagi penggunaan dari total luas lahan 2.013.600 Ha ke dalam: a) hutan pertumbuhan sakral 243.000 Ha (12 %); b) hutan produksi 1.650.600 Ha (82 %); c) hutan cadangan 40.000 Ha (2 %); serta d) daerah perlindungan dan konservasi sumber daya alam 80.000 Ha (4 %), sebagaimana yang dimaksudkan dengan pertumbuhan hidup selaras dan seimbang di antara usaha-usaha memperbaiki dan mengeksplorasi hutan, yang telah dirumuskan ke dalam tujuan proyek pembangunan Man and Biosphere, suatu proyek pembangunan yang lebih bertujuan untuk mengelola penggunaan sumber-sumber alam dan hasil hutan sebagai komoditas besar dalam skala ekspor international dengan memperhatikan pada kebutuhan hidup seimbang antara kebutuhan hidup manusia dan pelestarian lingkungan. Dalam pelaksanaan proyek ini, komunitas hidup manusia di dalam wilayah enclavement yang menjadi target pembinaan program juga telah dilibatkan dengan cara menelusuri secara progressive contextualism, dari mana sebenarnya kebutuhan hidup mendasar dari penggunaan sumber-sumber daya alam dan hutan itu berasal (Andrew P. Vayda & Rappaport; Endang Patriyunita, 1987).

Permasalahan Sosial-Budaya
Dalam permasalahan sosial-budaya yang dipahami secara hystorical particularistic, penetrasi budaya (penetration pacifique) yang telah dilalui dalam tiga tahapan globalisasi mulai dari masuknya maskapai perdagangan Hindia-Belanda dan Asia Timur Jauh (Far East Indie Trading Companny), Post Colonialism, sampai dengan Post Capitalism di Indonesia, secara historis telah menjustifikasi sebagian perilaku budaya komunitas desa hutan, dan telah memunculkan berbagai persoalan multidimensional di dalam kehidupan morfologi budayanya. Petani tradisional yang hanya memiliki pengetahuan terbatas untuk membuka pertanian lahan kering, dan yang semula hidup sebagai masyarakat egalitarian, saat ini mulai merubah orientasi hidupnya dan berusaha untuk keluar dari takdirnya yang hanya hidup sebagai petani penyewa lahan saja. Kondisi discurse yang demikian telah menyebabkan orientasi budaya dan pandangan hidup tradisional mulai berubah kepada cara-cara hidup kapitalis (stratified economizing), konversi lahan skala pertumbuhannya naik secara cepat melebihi pertumbuhan dari jenis hutan produktif, hutan cadangan, dan hutan konservasi alam – di mana usaha-usaha horticulture, crash cropt plantations, and mining corporations juga telah menjadikan lahan-lahan pertanian lebih diinginkan untuk dapat diperjual-belikan dan masuk dalam pemberlakuan aturan harga pasar. Dalam hal ini, kasus-kasus yang sering muncul adalah pada kondisi kurang cakapnya petani feodal menjaga dan memelihara lahan-lahan pertanian yang dimiliki (Dalton and Polanyi, 1963).
Sekarang ini, ada banyak kelompok kindred dalam kesatuan ekonomi domestik keluarga luas pedesaan di sepanjang perbukitan Meratus yang aktivitas kebudayaannya selalu berpusat di dalam Rumah Balai Adat Tradisional, dan harus menyediakan kebutuhan hidupnya sendiri (self sufficient products) dengan pemakaian teknologi subsisten yang cocok dengan lingkungan di dalam menata pola pemukiman di desa. Komunitas desa hutan seperti itu, telah memanfaatkan berbagai bahan serat dan kayu untuk menghasilkan peralatan hidupnya berupa benda-benda kebudayaan (artefak, ekofak, fitur, dan bangunan) yang diperoleh dari hutan tanaman produktif dengan aturan sistem adat promogenitur dan ultimogenitur melalui kepemilikan tanah-tanah hinduman atau lahan-lahan hilungan di dalam fungsi keluarga luas memberikan pengawasan terhadap pengelolaan harta produktif dan jumlah tenaga kerja yang dimiliki oleh keluarga-keluarga endogami (endogamous familly) atau juga keluarga-keluarga exogami (exogamous familly), yang memerlukan disseminasi di antara pengelolaan sumber daya budaya dengan sumber-sumber daya hutan tanaman industri yang dilaksanakan melalui kebijakan pemerintah di bidang agro-industry dan agro-forestry. Aktivitas budaya yang berhubungan dengan produksi, religi, dan keseimbangan kosmik dalam setiap komponen menthal dan perilaku budaya, melalui pemahaman kognitif simbolik dapat dipahami dari cara berpikir emik komunitas tersebut menjalankan model kearifan budaya (cultural geneous) yang secara tradisi dilaksanakan melalui adat-istiadat di dalam perilaku ekonominya (Sulaksono, 2008).

Foodnote:
1) Apanage adalah sejumlah tanah bangsawan yang pada waktu kesultanan Banjarmasin pada tahun 1960 dibubarkan oleh Belanda, kemudian dibagikan kepada pangeran-pangeran (pangerak) serta orang-orang yang dianggap pernah berjasa kepada pemerintahan kolonial (panganan dan pangiwa) untuk dikelola penggunaannya sebagai pertanian dan perkebunan (Syarifuddin, dkk., 1989).
2) Pada waktu penyebaran Islam oleh orang-orang dari kerajaan Demak dan Sriwijaya masuk ke Kalimantan Selatan, suku-suku bangsa asli yang semula merupakan rakyat dari kerajaan Daha menyatakan diri takluk di bawah pemerintahan Kesultanan Banjarmasin, dan sejak itu suku-suku bangsa asli lebih dikenal dengan sebutan suku-bangsa Banjar.
3) Pendekatan socio-biology dalam penelitian antropologi digunakan mengingat hampir tidak pernah dijumpainya lagi fosil-fosil paleoantropologi dalam periode akhir abad 19 dan permulaan abad 20, sehingga untuk menemukan hubungan genealogi di antara suku-suku bangsa yang dipelajarinya, ahli-ahli antropologi mulai mencari hubungan itu melalui mitologi-mitologi kuno yang hampir dimiliki oleh sebagian besar suku-suku bangsa di dunia.

Kearifan Tradisional
Model Kognitif Melestarikan Ekosistem Komunitas Desa Hutan

Ethnography

– Mitos Bukit Tanginau –

Komunitas desa hutan di Loksado mengenal mitos terjadinya Bukit Tanginau yang dahulu dikenal dengan nama Gunung Katinghayan pada waktu kedatangan bangsa Kaling (ras weddoid atau pygmoid di Kalimantan) yang percaya bahwa bukit (primeval mountain) itu dahulu sangat tinggi dan hampir menyentuh langit. Dari bukit itulah maka semua jenis tanaman seperti: padi, kencur, janar pidara, janar putih, bawang, dan sebagainya diturunkan ke dunia. Semua jenis tanaman tersebut tumbuh bersama ‘pohon kehidupan’ yang sekarang lebih dikenal dengan nama ‘mahligai’ yang banyak memberikan kemanfaatan bagi kehidupan manusia di dunia. Bukit Katinghayan yang seharusnya dijaga kesuciannya itu, menurut cerita pernah dicemari oleh perbuatan manusia sehingga bukit tersebut gugur (pecah) menjadi lima pancar sungai dan jenis tanaman yang ada mengering. Peristiwa yang menyebabkan kemurkaan dewa-dewa alam itu disebabkan oleh seorang putri yang sangat cantik dan menjadi rebutan pemuda di desa termasuk juga orang tuanya sendiri. Diceritakan bahwa puteri tersebut melakukan perbuatan incest dengan bapaknya sendiri di atas bukit suci dan kemudian mandi di sumur yang kemudian airnya tumpah menjadi lima buah sungai, dan sumur tersebut sampai sekarang dikenal dengan nama Tajau Darah. Kecantikan puteri Sindhunata yang sangat dikagumi para pemuda desa tersebut diabadikan menjadi nama Balai Malaris di desa Lok Lahung untuk mengingatkan orang, terutama wanita di desa agar tidak mengulang kembali perilaku puteri tersebut yang menjadi korban dari kecantikannya sendiri. Sejak peristiwa itu, penduduk desa di bukit itu harus hidup bertani dan menanam sendiri semua jenis tanaman surga dan harus selalu menjaga kesucian dari bukit-bukit yang lain dengan cara membuat pesta dan persembahan kepada dewa-dewa alam setiap tahunnya.

– Hilungan –

Berupa luas lahan tanah dilingkungan desa yang merupakan tanah paninian yang dimiliki oleh beberapa keluarga dan hanya boleh digunakan oleh keturunan keluarga melalui anak wanita. Tanah hilungan hanya boleh ditanami dengan jenis tanaman keras seperti: pohon karet (gatah), kayu manis, bambu, kuminting, dan sebagainya. Sistem pemilikan tanah hilungan pada komunitas desa hutan lebih menunjukkan kepada sistem adat ultimogenitur yang menghitung hubungan kekerabatan melalui pria maupun wanita dalam kepemilikan tanah, tetapi biasanya hanya anak wanita termuda saja yang lebih memiliki hak atas pewarisan tanah tersebut.

– Hinduman –

Berupa luas lahan dilingkungan desa yang boleh digunakan oleh beberapa keluarga dari pembagian harta kepada anak laki-laki atau anak perempuan dan dijadikan lahan produktif melalui fungsi pengawasan oleh keluarga luas. Mengenai penggunaannya boleh saja anak wanita memberikan hak penggunaannya kepada adik laki-laki atau saudara wanitanya yang belum memiliki pekerjaan. Lahan Hinduman hanya diperuntukkan bagi jenis-jenis tanaman produktif seperti: padi, gumbili, pisang, kacang tanah, kentang, dan sebagainya. Sistem adat kepimilikan tanah ini lebih menunjukkan kepada sistem adat promogenitur pada suku-suku bangsa lainnya di Indonesia. Ganti kepemilikan hanya boleh dilakukan kepada keluarga dekat dan menantu yang diberlakukan sebagai bride service. Ganti kepemilikan kepada orang luar atau keluarga pendatang tidak diperbolehkan menurut hukum adat yang berlaku. Sistem adat promogenitur menghitung hubungan kekerabatan melalui pria maupun wanita, tetapi hanya yang tertua saja yang lebih mendapatkan hak atas pewarisan tanah tersebut. Sistem adat ini sebenarnya juga merupakan fungsi pengawasan oleh keluarga luas cognatic and unileneal descent di dalam menentukan siapa yang harus melanjutkan dan menjaga ‘tutus’ atau ‘utus’ dalam hubungan kekerabatan konsentris dalam jumlah angkatan yang terbatas.

– Baarian Dan Bahandi –

Bertukar pekerjaan (bahindipan), yang dimaksud adalah mengambil upah dari cara bergotong royong di dalam keluarga yang biasanya dihitung dengan ‘gantang’ apabila dilakukan pekerjaan menugal, atau dihitung dengan uang Rp 40.000,- persetengah hari kerja untuk jenis pekerjaan membersihkan rumput atau menyiangi tanaman. Dalam kebiasaan yang berlaku maka menyadap getah diupah dengan uang dan untuk jenis tanaman padi dilakukan dengan upah pergantang. Mangaron (bagi hasil dengan cara menyewa tanah) tidak dikenal di desa Loksado karena hampir masing-masing keluarga di dalam komunitas desa hutan ini memiliki tanah sendiri. Cara penggunaan lahan yang lainnya adalah sewa-bagi hasil (bahandi), dengan cara sewa perborong atau anggar untuk ukuran depa (sebidang hektar tanah sama dengan 35 borongan). Satu borongan sama dengan 1 blek yang harus dibayarkan oleh sipenyewa sebanyak 35 blek padi kepada pemilik lahan.

– Langgatan Dan Lalaya –


Ethnography Ethnography

Simbol primeval yang menggambarkan hubungan kausalitas di antara kehidupan suci ‘alam atas’ dengan kehidupan profan di dunia manusia. Komunitas Desa Hutan meyakinkan bahwa ‘alam atas’ dilambangkan sebagai pohon kehidupan yang merupakan tempat tinggal dari dewa-dewa penguasa alam yang akan datang ke dunia manusia untuk memberikan berkah kehidupan kepada manusia berupa: rezeki, kebahagiaan, kesenangan, atau juga kesedihan. Transformasi bentuk formal pohon kehidupan dilambangkan sebagai tihang aras dalam tiga tingkatan (paludan walu). Tingkat pertama disebut Campan Nini, yaitu tempat bersemayamnya dewa-dewa tertinggi yang disebut Sanghyang Wanang; tingkat kedua berbentuk Tungkul, yaitu tempat bersemayamnya para dewa-dewa dan roh suci yang dapat mendatangkan kebahagiaan, kesedihan, rejeki, atau malapetaka kepada kehidupan manusia; tingkat ketiga berbentuk Mahligai, diyakinkan sebagai tempat tinggal atau bersemayamnya kehidupan dari roh suci (suitors) serta roh leluhur (anchestors) yang dapat memberikan kesuburan serta menjaga kemurnian ‘tutus’ keturunan dengan cara menitis kembali ke dalam rahim wanita. Dua tingkatan berikutnya di dalam tihang aras yang berbentuk langgatan (tempat bersaji) diyakinkan sebagai tempat tinggal ‘utus murni’ yang tinggal di dalam letak desa yang lebih tinggi. Anak Adam yang paling bungsu telah memberikan benih padi suci serta pengetahuan bertani kepada manusia, dan diyakinkan hidup bersama penduduk desa di puncak bukit kehidupan suci (primeval mountain). Tingkat paling bawah di dalam tihang aras yang juga berbentuk langgatan diyakinkan sebagai letak tempat tinggal manusia di dalam desa dan rumah-rumah balai desa.

– Meramalkan Peristiwa Dengan Tanda-tanda Alam –

Perhitungan Berdasarkan Arah Terbang Dan Suara Burung (Ornithomancy). Turunnya dewa-dewa dan roh suci ke dunia manusia melalui ‘mahligai’ berbentuk mahkota yang melambangkan simbol kesucian jiwa-jiwa yang terbebas dari dosa (mundanity) ini akan diberitakan oleh suara-suara burung yang dilambangkan dengan ‘burung cucurik’ yang datang dari arah empat mata angin. Irama suara kicauan burung itu, tanda-tandanya dipahami sebagai irama kebahagiaan, kesedihan, kesenangan, atau juga ketakutan untuk peristiwa-peristiwa yang akan datang kepada kehidupan profan di dunia manusia. Kedatangan dewa-dewa dan roh suci ini akan sampai kepada ‘utus murni’ golongan bangsawan di dalam stratifikasi sosial komunitas desa hutan yang tempat tinggalnya berada di tempat tertinggi dari kehidupan suci di bukit primeval (primeval mountain) yang diberkahi dengan tanah-tanah suci (hilungan) untuk disampaikan kepada masyarakat yang tinggal di desa-desa di bawah bukit yang bekerja sebagai petani di atas tanah produktif (hinduman) yang harus menjalani hidupnya bersama balian.

Perhitungan Berdasarkan Hubungan Antara Bintang (Astromancy). Semua tahapan pekerjaan di dalam bercocok tanam mulai dari: Manabas, Manyalukut dan Mamandah (membakar), Manaradak (membersihkan ladang setelah dibakar), Menyiang (membersihkan rumput dan tanaman liar), Manugal (menanam benih), sampai dengan saat benih padi Basambu (keluarnya malay padi pada waktu tanaman tumbuh setinggi 1,5 meter) dilakukan dengan cara menghitung waktu yang tepat melalui bentuk serta arah bergeraknya bintang-bintang dilangit. Komunitas desa hutan mengenali tanda-tanda alam tersebut melalui Bintang Karantika yang hanya muncul pada pagi hari saja. Pekerjaan menanam banih dan manugal hanya boleh dilakukan selama bintang tersebut masih terlihat, dan harus dihentikan pekerjaannya pada waktu bintang tersebut hilang pada siang hari. Cara ini dilakukan agar benih padi yang ditanam dapat tumbuh lebih subur.

Perhitungan Berdasarkan Tanda-tanda Yang Nampak Dalam Mimpi (Oneiromancy). Pada berbagai aktivitas kebudayaan yang lainnya maka komunitas desa hutan sangat mempercayai pada tanda-tanda yang muncul dalam mimpi untuk memulai suatu pekerjaan seperti melaksanakan aruh (upacara dan selamatan), mengambil hasil hutan, berburu, menangkap ikan, melaksanakan perkawinan, sampai dengan kapan balian, dukun, atau shaman harus mengobati penyakit.

 

Komunitas Desa Hutan Saturday, Dec 6 2008 

Sulaksono, Dwi Putro. Preservasi Bahan Serat Dan Kayu: Studi Antropologi Dayak Desa Hutan Kalimantan, 2008; Museum Grafika Indonesia, Banjarbaru.

  

Preservasi Bahan Serat Dan Kayu: Studi Antropologi Dayak Desa Hutan Kalimantan.

vi + 94 halaman; 7,17 x 10,12 cm

Apendix; Glossary; Index;

Rp. 45.000,-

 

ISBN  : 

 

Penerbit:

Museum Grafika Indonesia

Museum Lambung Mangkurat

Jln. Jend. A. Yani Km. 35,5 (0511) 4772453 Banjarbaru 70711

Propinsi Kalimantan Selatan.

E-Mail  :  dwiMuslam@telkom.net

Website:  www.geocities.com/iccmmuslam

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Studi preservasi dengan pendekatan sociobiology  dilakukan untuk memberikan perlindungan preventive secara menyeluruh terhadap objek-objek benda peninggalan kebudayaan manusia, studi preservasi juga bertujuan untuk menemukan hubungan genealogis dari suku-suku bangsa dengan cara lebih menaruh perhatian kepada perbedaan dan kemiripan budaya dari berbagai suku-suku bangsa yang dipelajari. Mengapa suatu kebudayaan dalam suatu wilayah demografi tertentu nampak begitu dekat, dan dalam beberapa unsur kebudayaannya cenderung menampakkan corak-corak khas yang hampir mirip dengan kebudayaan tetangganya; namun suatu kebudayaan tertentu justru cenderung menampakkan sifat kemurnian (origin) dan berbeda dari kebudayaan lainnya. Sebagian ahli antropologi berpendapat bahwa perbedaan dan kemiripan kebudayaan yang dijumpai pada suku-suku bangsa itu, lebih ditentukan oleh faktor genetik di dalam sifat-sifat biologi dari ras suku-suku bangsa tersebut, dan bukan ditentukan oleh faktor budayanya. Faktor budaya yang mendasari berbagai tindakan dan aktivitas berpola pada suku-suku bangsa itu sebenarnya lebih ditentukan oleh lingkungan (ekosistem) pembentuk perilaku-perilaku khusus di dalam sistem sosial manusia. Namun begitu, evolusi budaya sebenarnya telah terbentuk melalui sebuah proses yang sama dengan yang dihasilkan manusia melalui evolusi biologinya. Perilaku budaya manusia yang ditujukan untuk meningkatkan kesanggupan seorang individu di dalam mengembangkan keturunan dan kesanggupan sifat genetiknya untuk dapat bertahan hidup dalam kondisi alam tertentu, sebenarnya juga merupakan kesanggupannya secara selektif mengembangkan pola-pola budayanya.

Ahli sociobiology E.O. Wilson (1977: 132; 1978: 20ff) telah membuat daftar dari sejumlah unsur-unsur budaya yang ditanggapinya sebagai bagian dari kehidupan manusia. Di antara sejumlah daftar yang dibuatnya itu, simbol-simbol semantisme bahasa adalah merupakan unsur yang sangat penting. Menurutnya, unsur bahasa yang terdapat pada manusia memiliki sifat unik dan harus ditanggapi secara genetik. Makhluk homo sapiens memiliki sifat genetik yang unik berdasarkan pada kapasitasnya di dalam menerima, memasukkan, dan mentransmisikan secara selektif ‘muatan bebas’ dari kandungan gennya guna beresponsi secara sosial. Kebudayaan manusia, bagaimanapun juga, telah berkembang melalui tahapan-tahapan yang selalu bertambah kapasitasnya, memenuhi dunia ini dengan kebutuhan sosial manusia dan hasil-hasil karya (artefak) yang secara paralel dihasilkan melalui sifat-sifat inheren di dalam perilaku budayanya. Ahli-ahli antropologi, melalui pendekatan socio-biology, kemudian lebih memahami simbol-simbol semantisme bahasa itu ke dalam sebuah interpretasi kebudayaan dengan cara menelusuri unsur-unsur genealogis dari suku-suku bangsa, sehingga diperoleh sebuah kerangka berpikir: Mengapa manusia dengan latar belakang kebudayaan suku-suku bangsa tertentu menggunakan tanda-tanda (sign) dan simbol (symbols) di dalam setiap aktivitas kebudayaan dan benda-benda kebudayaannya.

Pendekatan sociobiology dalam studi preservasi ini digunakan mengingat hampir tidak pernah dijumpainya lagi fosil-fosil paleoantropologi dalam periode akhir abad 19 dan permulaan abad 20, sehingga untuk menemukan hubungan genealogi melalui mitologi-mitologi kuno yang terdapat hidup di antara suku-suku bangsa di dunia – di mana sampai saat ini, metode sejarah juga masih belum dapat digunakan secara menyeluruh di dalam menentukan angka pertanggalan anno domini. Diakronik antropologi menggunakan pendekatan sejarah secara kontekstual pada bagian-bagian sejarah yang disebut hystorical particularistic. Dalam model sociobiology (Wilson, 1977) terdapat 13 buah parameter yang tidak mungkin seluruhnya juga dapat digunakan dalam penelitian ini, terutama oleh keterbatasan laboratorium untuk pengujian DNA. Namun begitu, kita masih dapat menggunakan model pendekatan sociobiology ini dengan melihat pada beberapa parameter yang diantaranya: a) genealogy suku-suku bangsa, b) cara-cara penyampaian nilai-nilai budaya melalui socialization and internalizations, c) perbedaan tingkat kecerdasan pada setiap suku-bangsa yang terlihat dari cara-cara manusia menghasilkan benda-benda kebudayaan serta pemakaian simbol-simbol di dalam keseluruhan tindakan dan aktivitas kebudayaannya, dan d) reproductive success, yaitu kesanggupan dari suatu kebudayaan menampakkan sifatnya origin untuk intensitas waktu yang cukup lama.

 

Komunitas Desa Hutan Kalimantan Saturday, Dec 6 2008 

Sulaksono, Dwi Putro. Determinisme Dan Perubahan Kebudayaan: Studi Antropologi Dayak Desa Hutan Kalimantan, 2008; Scripta Cendikia, Banjarbaru.

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Determinisme Dan Perubahan Kebudayaan:

Studi Antropologi Komunitas Dayak

Desa Hutan Kalimantan.

vi + 138 halaman; 20,5 x 28 cm                                  

Apendix; Glossary; Index

Rp. 50.000,-                                

 

ISBN: 979-17090-7-6

 

Penerbit:

Scripta Dendikia

Balitra Jaya Permai V.01

Banjarbaru, Kalimantan Selatan

Telepon: 085751319181

E-mail: scriptacendikia@yahoo.com

 

Geomorfologi Kalimantan Selatan terdiri dari satuan bentuk lahan dataran alluvial pantai yang terjadi akibat kegiatan proses marine, seperti arus dan gelombang serta pasang surut air laut antara lain betinggisik (beachridges) dan dataran alluvial yang merupakan bentukan asal denudasi yang terjadi akibat proses gerak massa batuan serta proses deposisi yang umumnya terjadi pada daerah yang berlereng, seperti pada perbukitan Meratus. Dalam satuan bentuk lahan yang demikian itu, suku-suku bangsa Dayak Ngaju dan Maanyan dengan ciri-ciri Malayan Mongoloid dan Austro-Melanesian, suku-bangsa asli Kalimantan Selatan yang kemudian lebih dikenal dengan sebutan orang Banjar menata lingkungan pemukimannya. Petani pedesaan tradisional yang diasumsikan oleh Erick Wolf menerima takdirnya untuk dilahirkan di atas sebidang tanah dan hidup subsisten dengan memanfaatkan teknologi lingkungan secara sederhana, sekarang ini mulai mengalami berbagai peristiwa recurrent di dalam menentukan arah pada tiap-tiap base line of acculturation nya menuju kepada pertumbuhan penny capitalism dengan berbagai pengelolaan usaha korporasi dan entrepreneur melalui mekanisme perbankan dan sebagian petani pedesaan justru sedang menghadapi sebuah persoalan discurse dan sedang berusaha membebaskan diri dari takdirnya itu di dalam mengelola ekonomi domestik. Munculnya individu-individu progresive pada berbagai aktivitas produksi serta berbagai peristiwa sosial yang terjadi berulang-ulang (recurrent processes) telah merubah pandangan hidup tradisional masyarakat desa menjadi ‘ethos kerja produktif’. Phenomena serta perubahan yang terjadi di dalam sistem budaya dan sistem sosial pada masyarakat desa secara sinkronik dan diakronik, melalui strategi pendekatan diffussionalism dan phenomenology telah menjadi pokok perhatian utama dalam tulisan ini. Proses dinamika kebudayaan yang terjadi pada setiap base line of acculturation dalam masyarakat desa itu kemudian dipahami sebagai suatu proses menentukan arah menuju pada perubahan kebudayaan (directional process to culture change) dalam perkembangan corak hidup dan bentuk masyarakatnya.

 

Orientasi nilai budaya dipahami melalui pola-pola khusus (universal patterns) di dalam tindakan dan aktivitas kebudayaan manusia yang terdiri dari infrastruktur, struktur, dan superstruktur di masyarakat. Komponen-komponen ethic dan behavioral dalam pola-pola khusus tindakan dan aktivitas kebudayaan manusia itu kemudian dirumuskan ke dalam dua skema dasar, yaitu: a) core yang terdapat di dalam suatu infrastruktur berupa mode of production dan mode of reproduction, serta struktur di dalam ekonomi domestik dan ekonomi politik; b) superstructure yang berada di dalam komponen-komponen menthal and behavior dari aktivitas berpola di dalam kebudayaan manusia, seperti: musik, seni, tari, ritual dan sebagainya (Murdock et. al., 1961; ch. Steward, 1955).

 

Pengelolaan ekonomi politik dengan ciri-ciri egalitarian pada suku-bangsa Dayak Ngaju dikenali melalui aturan hubungan resiprositi dan redistribusi hasil-hasil produktivitas perekonomian desa yang dilakukan dalam pola pengaturan hubungan kekerabatan. Dalam bentuk stratified pengelolaan ekonomi politik dilakukan dengan menciptakan hubungan pertemanan dalam bentuk usaha korporasi dan enterpreneur. Pola stratified juga diperoleh melalui hubungan perkawinan (affinity) serta fungsi keluarga luas di dalam memberikan pengawasan pengelolaan ekonomi keluarga, jumlah tenaga kerja serta jaminan pengawasan terhadap pengelolaan joint usaha bersama dalam pengembangan harta komunal dan properti lainnya yang diperoleh sebagai bride exchange dari pemberian mas kawin dan jaminan perkawinan yang nilainya cenderung berfluktuasi. Pembangunan ekonomi politik masyarakat Dayak Ngaju dengan strategi pendekatan cognitivism, historical particularistic, dan dialectical-materialism disajikan melalui model pembangunan berkelanjutan.

who i am… Saturday, Dec 6 2008 

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Dwi Putro Sulaksono. Dilahirkan di Kalijati, 1 Oktober 1960. Pendidikan sarjana antropologi tahun 1988 diperoleh di Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik FISIP Universitas Indonesia Jakarta. Tahun 2003 Studi Pospone diperoleh di Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia dalam kegiatan International Workshop of Conservation in Flexible Material, International Study on Conservation and Preservation to the Cultural Property, ICCROM – UNESCO; Rome, Italy. Pada Januari 2008, penulis memperoleh beasiswa P3SWOT by research dari Pusat Kerjasama Luar Negeri; Departemen Pendidikan Nasional R.I., Jakarta. Juli 2008, aktif sebagai panelis di dalam 5th International Sympossium of Journal Anthropology Indonesia di Banjarmasin. Tahun 1997 penulis berkeluarga dan dikaruniakan satu orang putera.

Saat ini penulis berkerja sebagai Pamong Budaya Ahli Madya di Museum Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarbaru dan sejak tahun 2003 sampai sekarang penulis bekerja sebagai Dosen Antropologi pada Program Studi Sosiologi-Antropologi PPIP-FKIP Universitas Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarmasin. Sejak tahun 2002 penulis aktif di dalam organisasi profesi Ikatan Ahli Arkeologi Indonesia (IAAI) Komda Kalimantan. Di samping bekerja, penulis juga aktif dalam berbagai kegiatan seminar serta diskusi yang diselenggarakan secara nasional. Karya di dalam bentuk buku: Sungai Dan Kehidupan Masyarakat di Kalimantan, IAAI Komda Kalimantan; Dinamika Kearifan Lokal Masyarakat Kalimantan, IAAI Komda Kalimantan; Determinisme Dan Perubahan Kebudayaan, Studi Antropologi Dayak Desa Hutan Kalimantan, Scripta Cendikia; Studi Preservasi Bahan Serat Dan Kayu, Studi Antropologi Dayak Desa Hutan Kalimantan, Museum Grafika Indonesia.

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